Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that is based on the concept of objects. An object is an instance of a class, which is a blueprint that defines the properties and methods of the object. Here are some of the key features of object-oriented programming:
Encapsulation is the mechanism of hiding the internal details of an object and exposing only the necessary details to the outside world. This is achieved by making the properties and methods of the object private and exposing only the public interface.
Abstraction is the process of simplifying complex systems by breaking them down into smaller, more manageable parts. In OOP, abstraction is achieved by defining classes that represent abstract concepts or entities and then creating objects based on those classes.
Inheritance is a mechanism that allows classes to inherit properties and methods from other classes. This allows for the creation of classes that are based on existing classes, but with additional functionality or modifications.
Polymorphism is the ability of objects to take on different forms or behaviors. In OOP, this is achieved through method overloading and method overriding, which allow for different implementations of methods with the same name.
Class and Object:
Classes are templates or blueprints for creating objects. Objects are instances of classes that have their own unique set of properties and methods.
Overall, the object-oriented paradigm emphasizes modularity, reusability, and maintainability of code, making it a popular choice for software development.